- Cailtidh nicFhionnlaigh bean Cato (SCA pseud.). "The Teaching
of Dance." The Letter of Dance, no. 4 (1990).
Justin du Coeur: Discusses methods of dance teaching. While the letter
is primarily aimed at SCA dancemasters, much of what it discusses is germane
to the teaching of folk dance.
- Caldwell, John. "Early Keyboard Tablatures and Medieval Dance
Theory." In Atti del XIV Congresso della Società Internazionale
di Musicologia: Trasmissione e recezione delle forme di cultura musicale,
eds. A. Pompilio, D. Restani, L. Bianconi and F.A. Gallo, 681-686. Turin:
Edizioni di Torino, 1990.
- Caroso, Marco Fabritio.
- Il Ballarino. Venice: Apresso Francesco Ziletti,
1581; reprint, New York: Broude Brothers, 1967.
Matt Larsen: This particular manual, Il Ballarino, or The Dancing Master,
is the first of the Italian manuals of this era to be published. It contains
two sections, one on steps and dance manners, and one which contains choreographies.
The second section includes eighty dances, with lute tabulature for the
accompanying music, as well as scores for some of the dances.
- Nobilta` Di Dame. Translated by Julia Sutton. Venice: Presso
il Muschio, 1600; reprint, Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.
ISBN: 0-19-311917- X.
Matt Larsen: Caroso's second book is a refinement of the first, to
the extent that the cover page subtitles it the "Second Edition of
the Book Called Il Ballarino." This is in spite of the fact that only
some twenty of the forty-nine dances presented in it duplicate dances found
in the previous volume. But while it is not a true second edition, there
are many additions and refinements to both the "rules" for the
steps and the dances themselves. As a result, any reconstruction of one
of the dances which appears in both volumes should rely on the second for
the definitive version. Even when reconstructing a dance from Il Ballarino
which does not appear in Nobilta di Dame, one should examine the step
descriptions in the second volume, since they are in general more clear and
precise. Julia Sutton's translation makes this one of the more accessible of
the sixteenth century Italian sources, but one should be careful not to rely
too heavily on it in creating reconstructions, as there are always nuances
lost, however good the translation may be.
Lizbeth Langston: I disagree that "...any reconstruction ... should
rely on the second...." While Nobilta' can be useful for clarifying
passages in Il Ballarino, the first book must be taken on its own terms,
reflecting a dance tradition reaching back towards the middle of the 16th
century, as attested by balli d'incerti (dances of uncertain origin) and
dances by other, earlier dancing masters.
If you are interested in dance of an earlier time, use Il Ballarino.
Note that descriptions of certain of Caroso's step units change between
the books. The seguito spezzato is one example, in which the second foot
is placed differently: to the instep in Il Ballarino, and to the heel in
Nobilta'. In the seguito ordinario, Caroso specifically instructs dancers
to finish with the back heel down in Il Ballarino, but allows it to rise
in Nobilta'. In spite of what Caroso says, I do not consider the earlier
dance and step-unit instructions wrong or "badly made," rather,
as an historian, I assume that each book reflects what Caroso thought was
correct at the time.
If you want the most interesting/complicated dance and exact time period
doesn't matter, look at all the variations and pick the one you like best.
Finally, if you are in a situation where historical accuracy is not
the highest priority, adapt, mix, interpret, or rechoreograph the originals
as much as you want!
- Nobilta' Di Dame. Bibliotheca Musica Bononiensis,
Ser. II, no. 103., 1600; reprint, Bologna: Forni, 1970. 56. Carreras y
Candi, F., ed. 2nd ed. Vol. I,II, Folklore Y Costumbres De Espana. Barcelona:
Raccolta Di Varij Balli.... Rome: 1630.
Cervera MS, vol I, p. vii; vol II, p. 303. See entry of original for
Matt Larsen: Essentially a reprinting of Nobilta di Dame with a new
- Carreras y Candi, F. Folklore y Costumbres de Espana. 2nd ed.
- Cassazza, Joseph (SCA pseud. Giuseppe Cassazza). "Evidence For
English Country Dances in the Sixteenth Century." The Letter of Dance,
no. 16 (1993): 31-35.
Justin du Coeur: Lists all 16th references to
Playford dances, and discusses what
conclusions can be reached based on the scant evidence.
- Castelli, Patrizia, Maurizio Mingardi and Maurizio Padovan. "Mesura
Et Arte Del Danzare : Guglielmo Ebreo Da Pesaro E La Danza Nelle Corti
Italiane Del XV Secolo." Pesaro: Pucelle, 1987.
160 p. : ill. (some col.), facsims., ports. ; 28 cm
Lizbeth Langston: Exhibit catalog to accompany 1987 Ebreo conference
[see separate entry]. In Italian. Four
articles, profusely illustrated. Thoughts on dance and music in the 15th C.
with particular reference to visual materials. This volume is particularly
valuable for the well-reproduced illustrations, in color and black and white,
of old standards and others not usually seen.
- Cellio, Monica (SCA pseud. Ellisif Flakkingskvinne). "The Return
of Spring: A New English Country Dance in the Style of Playford."
The Letter of Dance, no. 2 (1989).
Justin du Coeur: As the title implies, a new English Country Dance,
in the relatively early EC style. (ie, sets of couples, instead of lines
- Chadima, Helen Gower. "The Use of Castanets in Baroque Dance."
In Proceedings of the Sixth annual conference of the Society of Dance History
Scholars, 84-94. Milwaukee, WI: Dance History Scholars, 1983.
- Chazin-Bennahum, Judith. "The Contribution of Jeane-Jacques Rousseau
to Ballet (1712-1778)." In Proceedings of the ninth annual conference
of the Society of Dance History Scholars, 152-159. Riverside: Dance History
- Closson, Ernest, 1870-1950. Le Manuscrit Dit Des Basses Danses De La
Bibliotheque De Bourgogne. Brussels: 1912; reprint, Geneve: Minkoff Reprint,
Matt Larsen: Ms in Brussles, Bibliotheque Royale, Ms 9085. Facsimile
with introduction and transcription by Ernest Closson. This manuscript
includes a short discussion on steps for the Burgundian style of basse
dance, which are processional in nature, beginning with a reverence (i.e.
bow) and branle, followed by some combination of single steps, double steps,
reprises and branles. The most well-known of these dances in the SCA are
Dance de Cleves and Fransois Nouvele, both reconstructed from this manuscript.
This work includes a list of 59 bassedances, along with music. The music
given is only the tenor line, as the musicians were expected to improvise
one or two more parts around the base given to the tenor. The introduction
by Closson is dated, and has been supplanted by newer scholarship.
Nathan Kronenfeld: There are also two dances which are not basse dances.
- Cochlaus, Johannes. Hie Jnnen sindt geschriben die wellschen tenntz.
Matt Larsen: Nurnberg Ms. "Hie Jnnen sindt geschriben die wellschen
tenntz." Brief,undated (c. 1517) ms. in Nurnberg, Germ. Nat. Mus.
(MS 8842). Discussion with facsimile of single page in Ingrid Brainard.
"The Art of Courtly Dancing in
Transition...", pp. 61-79. This is a small manuscript, consisting of
seven pages. It offers eight choreographies, but no music or description of how
the steps are performed is included. Dr. Brainard attributes this source to one
Johannes Cochlaus, a German who was at the university of Bologna. The manuscript
was apparently compiled for a pair of young ladies in Nurnberg, who desired some
knowledge of current fashion in Italian dancing, for use at local dances. Most
of the included dances appear in the Italian sources of the period, but this
source offers a point of view other than that of a dancing master.
- Collins, Marc (SCA pseud. Guillaume di San Marino). "Book Review:
Orchesography." The Letter of Dance, no. 12 (1992): 1-2.
Justin du Coeur: A review of Orchesography
as a dance manual, rather than simply something to be reconstructed.
- Colombo, Carmela and Cesare Negri. La Danza Nel Seicento. Bellinzona:
La Vesconta, 1962.
47 p. 10 plates. 33 cm
- Copeland, Robert. "The Manner of Dauncynge of Bace Daunces."
In Dances of England and France from 1450 to 1600, 2-4. New York: Da Capo
Matt Larsen: Translation of an unknown French source appended to his
publication of a French grammar by Alexander Barclay. The introductory
to wryte and to pronounce Frenche. Only copy in Oxford, Bodleian Library
(Douce B. 507). This source is very similar to some of the French sources
from the fifteenth century, particularly
Toulouze, Moderne and the
although this source is somewhat more brief. It includes a number of the
choreographies which appear in the other sources, although it contains no
music and offers fewer choreographies than the French sources. The
discussion is also more brief than that in the other sources, but the
information which is there is very similar to parts in the others.
- Cornazano, Antonio.
- Libro Dell'arte Del Danzare. 1455; reprint, Florence: La
Matt Larsen: Ms. copy (c.1465) in Rome Biblioteca Aposolica Vaticana
(Codex Capponiano,203. About two fifths of the book contains a discussion
of the qualities which one needs for dancing, such as Memory, Measure,
Manner, Spirit, Variety and Use of Space. These generalities give way to
a discussion of tempo and steps, although the step descriptions given are
hazy and open to multiple interpretations (as is usually the case with
these manuals). The remaining three fifths of the book are given over to
descriptions of dances, balli and bassedanza, some of which appear in the
other available sources.
- The Book on The Art of Dancing. Madeleine Inglehearn
and Peggy Forsyth. 1455; reprint, London: Dance Books Ltd., 1981. ISBN:
Matt Larsen: This is the first available translation of a fifteenth
century Italian treatise, and so is one of the earliest sources easily
accessible to most readers. Anyone who is at all serious about fifteenth
century dance should obtain a copy, although consultation of the original
and other sources in the Italian are a must for any serious reconstruction
of the dances. See entry of original for further comments.
- Proverbi di messer Antonio Cornazano in facetie. 1865; reprint,
Bologna: Forni, 1968.
facsimile of 1865 edition
- Corti, Gino. "Cinque Balli Toscani Del Cinquecento." Rivista
Italiana Di Musicologia 12, no. 1 (1977): 73-82.
Andrew Draskoy: I think this is transcriptions and commentary on five
Italian dances from some 16th century letters. In Italian.
Ian Engle: Typesettings of 2 Florentine dance mss.
Lizbeth Langston: Transcription of five dances. "La Caccia"
from Firenze, Archivo di Stato: Carte Strozziane Serie I, 22 (1559) and
four balletti: "Ruota di Fortuna," "La Bataglia," "La
Invlice," and "Adorato Core" from Firence, Biblioteca nazionale
ms. Magl XIX, 31. These last four include music strains: transcribed lute
tablature and score.
- Crane, Frederick.
- "The Derivation of Some Fifteenth Century Basse-Dance
Tunes." Acta Musicologica 37 (1965): 179-88.
- Materials For the Study of Fifteenth Century Basse Dance.
Wissenschaftliche Abhandlungen [Institute of Mediaeval Music], no. 16.
New York: Institute of Medieval Music, 1968.
- "On Performing Los Estampies." Early Music 7 (1979):
Ian Engle: Concerns musical performance.
- Cruciani, Fabrizio. Teatro nel Rinascimento Roma 1450-1550. Rome: Bulzoni,
- Cruickshank, Diana.
- Danzare Et Balare, Vol. 1.
- Danzare Et Balare, Vol. 2.
- Danzare Et Sonare.
Del (D.Elson): 15th Century Italian Dances, arranged and played by
the Longslade Consort. Dances interpreted by Diana Cruickshank.
- Selva Amorosa.
Del (D.Elson): This is a collection of 18 of the dances from Caroso's
Il Ballarino (1581) and
Nobilta di Dame (1600). The book gives the choreographies, translated
and interpreted by Diana Cruickshank. The accompanying cassette tape,
played by Scaramella, contains the music for the dances, arranged by
- Cunningham, James P.
- "The Country Dance -- Early References."
Journal of the English Folk Dance and Song Society 9, no. 3 (December 1962).
- Dancing in the Inns of Court. London: Jordan & Sons, Ltd., 1965.
Dennis Sherman: Includes transcriptions of
- Cutts, John P. "Jacobean Masque and Stage Music." Music and
Letters 35 (1954): 185.
Ian Engle: Catalogue and commentary.
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